Main lines: in

Arc of



Relations between The Four


of Information

[dd. 2020|05|12 - 17h:18m (08s:003ms) ]

Overall view:

 The Four


of Information





Field of knowledge




Communication and Language


(process level)
Psychological processes
Abstract patterns
Physical processes
Social interactions

Typical activity

Performance, motivation, experience, quality, consciousness
Reasoning, inference, judgment, truthfinding
Operation, influencing, directing
Sending and receiving of information

Verbal and nonverbal encoding and decoding


What determines well-being, responding, decision-making of people?
How do you know what is true, probable, or plausible?
What is causing a phenomenon - and what are its consequences?
What does language 'tell'? What does communication 'do'?


Model of functioning/system
Laws of truth,
valid schemes of inference
Laws of cause-effect,
causal hypothesis/model
Principles of contact, communication and language use

Mode of information

Information in behavior and experience
Information in combinations and implications
Information in processes of cause-effect
Information in sign and meaning


Quality: meanings, sense-data, emotions, esthetics, .. qualia
Quantity: combinations, derivation relations
Operation: dynamics; causal mechanisms
Physical manifestation: expressions

Type of structure

Semantic network

Content and consistency of experience : model, determines associative thinking.
'We anticipate events by construing their replications' (Kelly, G.A., 1955; Construct Theory, Construction Collorary').
'The map is not the territory' (A. Korzybski).
Logical structure

Planning Patterns: Abstract structure, represents logical combinations and implications: preconditions for truth value.
'To discover truths is the task of all sciences, it falls to logic to discern the laws of truth' (G. Frege).
Causal relations

Using information to achieve desired results.

'Rules' and 'vocabulary' - from language, culture, events or improvisation - for expressing information.
Preconditions for communication.
'The choice of the signifier.. has no natural connection with the signified' (F. de Saussure, 1916; 1922: p.200).
'The connection of linguistic forms with their meanings is wholly arbitrary' (L. Bloomfield, 1933, p.145) .

Unique features

Capacity for consciousness -
Unique features:
(·) Is a necessary condition for all experience and information that we can know of.
(·) Includes quality of experience, intrinsic value, sensory experience, emotion, qualia etc..
• Conscious awareness.
• Conscious noting something (on grounds of difference).
• Degree of global intensity of consciousness.
• Subjective sensations (sentiency).
• Quality aspects of experiences (qualia).
• Clarity, sharpness and detail of experience (lucidity).
• Dynamics of experience (vividness).
• Degree of specific intensity of experience (impressiveness).
• Sense encountered (pregnancy).
• Meaning perceived (intensionality).
• Overall experience of quality (e.g. experienced degree of happiness, contentment, gratification, fulfillment, satisfaction).
(see a.o. Miller, Kaplan, Searle, Nagel, Chalmers, Lanier, etc.).
Abstract organization -
Unique features:
(·) Is open to discrete difference, basis of information.
(·) Is quantifiable. Quantity includes e.g., size, number , sign, syntax, structure, complexity, etc..
(·) Is systematically 'creative'. Combinatorics gives rise to differentiation, by which other aspects and variations appear.
(·) Is, by combinatory explosion, infinitely expandable (up to unlimited cardinality). However, any valid expansion or transformation will always be immediately and inherently reversible, i.e. reducible again to its starting parameters.
(·) Embodies extrinsic organization . Implies Multiple Realizibility . Offers raw material for Virtual Reality.
(·) Is subject to logical laws, which are described in formal logic and meta-logic.
(eg Frege, Hilbert, Cantor, Russell, Zermelo, Herbrand, Tarski, Gödel, Church, Kleene, Turing, Lindenbaum, Henkin, Skolem, Löwenheim, Robinson, etc.).
Physical structure -
Unique features:
(·) Is apparently inherent to physical phenomena such as matter, energie, space and time.
(·) Implies intrinsic organization.
(·) Comprises cause-effect relations (causality).
(see Kant, Peirce, Wehl, Popper, Lakatos and others).
Intersubjective experience -
Unique features:
(·) Communication consists of 'the offering and accepting of meaning' (V.Satir, 1976).
(·) Communication enables mutual understanding. The value of shared experience comprises more than ' the sum of its parts'.
(see Korzybski, Leech, Heider, Keller & Brown, Satir, etc.).

Inherent features

Discernable of other domains.
(·) Appears to be dependent of neuro-physical functions.
(·) Can not immediadetely, as such, be observed in physical domain.
(·) Is accessible for, but essentially not reducible to, abstract ordering. Quality can not be substituted or created by quantity. Is in effect not 'computable' through algorithms.
Discernable of other domains.
(·) Is immediately perceivable within consciousness, although only through mental construction.
(·) Can not completely, 100% exactly be 'contained' in conscious perception.
(Can be understood, but is not fully imaginable. Think for example of a 'thousand-sided polygon').
(·) Does not have a 'process nature' or other physical features. (·) Is not dependent of physical aspects such as matter, energie, space or time; therefore neither substance, medium or carrier.
(·) Can not immediadetely, as such, be located in physical domain.
(·) Kan niet volledig, 100 % exact worden weergegeven in fysisch domein.
(Can be understood, but can not be fully represented.. Think for example of a 'perfect circle').
(·) May show an approximate symmetry with , but is not really reducible to, physical structure.
Discernable of other domains.
(·) Appears to be inherently relative.
(·) Is not recognizable 'as such' (an Sich) to us.
(·) Has no - traceable - intrinsic 'meaning'. Has only assigned meaning, through interpretation.
(·) Physical form may nevertheless, within some shared context (frame of reference ), serve as a vehicle for signaling and communication.
Discernable of other domains.
(·) Communication makes use of reference by means of form , transmission and meaning.
it thus involves interaction between the domains of information (abstract order), physical processes and subjective perception.